An activity of the Primer Group


A Special Integration Group (SIG) of the
International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS)
originally SGSR, Society for General Systems Research.



Charles Francois


In various forms, such a tutorial has been developed along the last fifteen years by our Argentine Association.

Presently, the tutorial includes two succesive modules.

A. An Introductory Tutorial
1. The sources of knowledge
- Physical, physiogical, psychological, and cultural limits to perception and conceptualization.
2. The System
- Whole and parts
-Emergent Relationships
- General characteristics of sub-systems
- Environment, input and output, sources and sinks
- Processes; inter and intrasystemic flows, interconnections, functions.
- Stucture; order and form.
3. Systems Transformations
- Autogenesis
- Growth and Morphogenesis
- Fluctuations and instabiliities
- Emergence through dissipative structuration
- Aging and destruction
4. Cybernetics 1
- Positive, negative and compensating feedbacks
- Regulation, control and hierarchy
- Variety and constraints
- Law of requiste variety
5. Cybernetics 11
- Information: signs, signals, significations, data, codes, languages, messages
- Communication: Transmission and quantification of information.
-Channels, noise, redundancy

B. A second level Tutorial
1. Metaphors, analogies, isomorphies:
- Their transdisciplinary uses.
2. Complexity levels:
- Miller's taxonomy of living systems; -levels of organization;
- critical subsystems;
-translevel hypothesis.
3. The various kinds of systems:
- Their ways of processing energy, matter and information.
Neural nets and complex systems genesis.
4. From autopoiesis to autogenesis and vice-versa.
- The limits of autonomy; controls, natural and artificial;
cybenetics of the complex control.
5. Complex cyclical behavior in systems:
- Deterministic chaos; limits to determinism in prospective and planning;
- multi-level cyclical forecasting and planning.
6. Cybernetics of second order:
- The observer according to von Foerster, Maturana, and Jumarie;
-Korzybski's Structural differential
7. Creation of information:
- Information treatment;
- formalized languages.

By Charles Francois