TRIANGLES AND TETRONS

 

AMERICAN CIRCLES

 

 

 

Why Crop Circles Come From Inside Space

 

This Work in Progress

August 2004

Sept. 2004

Oct 2004

Nov 2004

 

 

ABSTRACT

Crop circles are circular formations of laid down crop found typically in a field of grain most often in Southern UK. Usually appearing during the night, one crop circle appeared within view of Stonehedge, around five PM within a forty five minute time frame, guards at Stonehedge stated

Crop circles have been rigorously scrutinized using scientific methods and protochols which indicate that some crop circles have features which cannot be hand made. At the same time "hoaxed" crop circles have also appeared demonstrating what can be hand made. Hoaxing a crop circle is in most cases criminal activity and has done little more than confuse the issue. Hoaxing a crop circle is deceiving and lying. It is not to be trusted. The scientific studies clearly show that there are significant and measurable differences between a hoaxed and an authentic crop circle.

 

I write this paper with the assumption that a percentage of crop circles are “authentic” or NOT man made. . This paper discusses those observable features of authentic crop circles, and submits an explanation (theory) of HOW the circles could be made. It is submitted here that they originate from the INSIDE of empty-space. Related concepts of hyperspace, the fifth dimension, the quantum vacuum and Zero Point Energy are discussed. It is further proposed that humans are capable and even adept working with the INSIDE of space, and, therefore, we may not need the intelligence of an alien to explicate authentic crop circles.

 

A second and perhaps more primary claim is also made. It is submitted that the geometry of the Crop circles reflects the primacy of the triangle. Thus we have a message from the inside of space which tells us, in terms of geometry, that the triangle is a primary principle. An overview of how the triangle has been depicted will be hopefully presented

 

 

A “real” crop circle is “unreal.”

 

 

 

“In Conclusion:: Something strange is going on: ” writes Dr I Haselhoff in his book The Deepening Complexity of Crop Circles” And in his book “Vital Signs,” Andy Thomas subtitles it as “A Complete Guide to the Crop Circle Mystery and Why It is NOT a HOAX. Over 10,000 crop circles have been found since the 1970’s writes Freddy Silva in his book “Secrets in the fields.” “Eighty percent of those are man-made,” announced Colin Andrews, prominent researcher of crop circles..

 

What they are saying, if we do the math, is that the physical evidence revealed in scientific studies identifies at least 2000 creop circles that have features that cannot be man made or even explained by known physics. There are abrupt biological changes that are found in the downed crop There are analmalous chemical changes found in the soils within the circles. There are electro-magnetic/static fields measured and felt in and around a crop-circle. There are significant differences in moisture inside compared to outside the crop circle. And of course there are precise geometrical crop circle formations from which five new geometrical theorems have been derived. Some of these features cannot be explained with “our” ordinary physics or technology. The stalk of grain are bent, not broken. Excess nitrites found in the soil occur through great heat. Crystalization of clay only occurs from great heat and pressure. These features cannot be replicated by the hand of man. Hence, 2000 circles are inexplicable. After years, even decades, of investigation by biologists and physicists, the general concensus seems to be summed up in one sentence - "we do not know what is causing them."

 

All we need is one.

 

OVERVIEW

 

 

Crop Circles are not so new, they were written up in the literature as far back as the 1600’s, when a a farmer declared he would rather let the Devil cut his crop than accept the price given to him to have his crop cut for him. Then awakening the next day to discover a crop circle in his crop. An estimated 300 were observed up to 1970.

 

Crop circles have been found in many countries and can take different forms. They have formed on water, snow, sand and dry lake beds. In a dry lake bed in Oregon, a thirteen mile long series of trenches three inches deep with beveled edges was carved in the shape of the Hindu (find name) On a plain in Australia, seen plainly from satellite photos, a naked figure of an aboriginie (sic) appeared. Circles have been found on one quarter inch thick ice

 

 

Crop circles sightings proliferated during the 80’s with global interest peaking in 1991 -92. But then the infamous Doug & Dave team admitted they had hoaxed the crop circles. Curious events would follow. A disinformation effort by the media and “government” to discredit researcher Colin Andrews by talking him into validating a hoaxed circle before he even saw it. The ruse worked, his authority was ridiculed from then on. Andrews also writes of being offered “a Swiss bank account” if he would only dismiss all circles as hoaxes. That didn’t work.. Dr I Haselhoff tells us about an interview in which he was asked. (insert quote here) Nevertheless, the disinformation effort is mainly successful even today. It appears the rest of the world outside researchers and “croppies” still believes that ALL crop circles are hoaxed..

 

 

 

However, once the cop circle is accepted as “real”, and “real” means not man-made, then we can ask the real “what” and “how” questions that would never get asked otherwise.

 

 

 

There is a lot more going on than just plants being bent over in a circle. And thanks to BLT Research, Dr Levengood and Dr Haselhoff, replicative analysis and scientific studies of the phenomenon has taken place. There are crop circle made by the hand of man, and there are crop circles that do not exhibit properties of man made circles. Instead they have measurable and replicable properites of their own, properties not found in the man made circles.

 

Here is what an authentic non-hand-made crop event looks like. These are typical features found inside a circle compared to outside the circle in standing crop.

 

 

BIOLOGICAL CHANGES

 

Perhaps the one singular feature of a real crop circle are the bent stalks. The stalks are not broken, which happens when a board is drawn over it, but instead are are literally "bent" ninty degrees. Some bends have been 45 and sixty debrees. Ten foot corn stalks have been found laid down bent in a curve. Canola, or oilseed rape, has a structure like celery, and like celery will shap if bend past 45 degrees, are found bent over ninty degrees unbroken. In one circle, the canola had flowered, with hundreds of flowers on each stalk, all undamaged in the downed crop. Plants have been found bent over interspersed within standing crop bent stalks between standing stalks, at the edges of some circles. The bent of the plant is at the nodes or filia, some low to the ground, some just below the seed head. The nodes or knuckle like knobs in the smooth stalk are measurably changed—they are found elongated as much as 100 per cent when compared to standing crop. . The nodes are also found often to have burst.

 

Growth such as this is never found in a man made circle.

 

It appears the bending agent is extreme heat – similar effects can be produced in a microwave oven. The effects of heat have been found in the soil and the plants.

 

TEMPERATURE CHANGES

 

They have found flies with their wings welded to the plant. They have found metal fuzed to the plant – the iron molded to the cellular structure of the plant. Microspheres of magniite arte typically found with the metal found on the plants and in the soil. They have found nitrate in the soil inside the circles which only heat can produce. They have found increased crystallization of clay inside the circle, increasing crystalization that normally occurs at extreme pressures and time. The soil is typically found to be dryer, sometimes bone dry.

 

All this is indicative of extreme heat. And judging from the lack of significant damage to the crop itself outside of some local charring around burst nodes, very fast extreme heat at that. Like wetting a finger and touching it to a hot iron. Imagine white hot…

 

 

TIME

 

Usually the crop circles appear in the night from 11- 4 AM. Mainly in southern England. But the circle can appear during the day. Perhaps one of the most complex Windmill Hill July 18, 2002 (See fig one)

 

appeared in the afternoon on windmill hill. A pilot flew over in the morning and it wasn’t there. When he flew back in the afternoon it was there. A circle appeared across from Stonehedge, in clear view of it’s guards, a sweeping spiriling diminished curve composed of circles, was done in a time frame of fifteen minutes– “it wasn’t there”, then, “it was there “the guards reported. Some complex designs have taken three or four days to complete.

 

MAGNETIC FIELDS

There is an electromagnetic/static field around and in a crop circle. The typical crop circle provides many different kinds of experiences with the electro-magnetic/static fields within the circle. It has been reported: A compass will act erratically, sometimes spinning like a top. Cell phones cease to work when carried into a crop circle. Cameras will not work. Disruption of Electrical Power sometimes affects the neighborhood, cars stop running.. People are physically affected when in the circle. Hormones levels change. Thyroid output abruptly changes. Dogs and horses avoid the circle. Birds break formation and fly around the circle. Even smoke has been seen going around a crop circle Effects on humans are mostly initially negative, nausea, confusion, fatigue these initial effects are followed by positive effects later on. . In some cases this extraordinary effect can be detected the following year. Ghost circles from the previous year have appeared in new crop.

 

Now it gets surreal

 

BALLS OF LIGHT

or BoL’s, that’s how they get described. These bizarre enigma’s have been observed not just once, or even a few times –, all told there are hundreds of sightings, all describing “a small ball of light, like a football.” One video shows the mysterious BoLs move from a circle it was hovering over-toward an approaching tractor and then you can see the driver turn his head as it flies by him. Synchronous verification? Interestingly, small Balls of Light are mentioned in many other unusual situations as well. Sightings of vertical columns of light have been made prior to the appearance of a crop circle.

 

GEOMETRY

Crop circles have evolved from the single circle to combinations of circles with up to 13 fold geometry. The relationships between the circles is not happenstance, but reflects old and new geometrical theorems with an accuracy of one percent.

Some circles reflect diatonic ratios, like the music scale. This geometrical order becomes most obvious in the harmony and beauty a crop circle can exhibit. Flawless in its execution, it is clear the circle was made all at once from a single frame of reference. The question is whose frame of reference is it?

Discussion

 

All we need is one…

Inexplicable is probably the most objective sounding word I learned and a fitting jargonese. That crop circles do happen is “mysterious” , but “how” they happen and “what” happens in them is impossible in our (ordinary) physics. Our physics cannot explain what happens in a crop-circle. They cannot be explained. They are inexplicable.

 

 

 

At the same time, hoaxing a crop circle has become a significant player in this drama. It has been shown that it is possible to create what appears to be an authentic crop circle by hand using board and garden rollers. Here the crop is broken not bent. The Media has taken an interest in hoaxed crop circles, usually attempting to debunk the cirvlemakers. Many have taken this apparent ability to manually create a crop circle to mean that all crop circles are man made. This is an interesting spin of logic - “a crop circle can be man-made” somehow becomes “all crop circles are man made.” “And that is that…” They will then dismiss all the counter evidence, not because they find a flaw but only because it does not support their assumptions.

 

Well, hold on there…the logic of this science is not good logic. “This dog is green.” is not saying “all dogs are green.” There is no connection between the premise and the conclusion, no basis to assume that all dogs are green, Besides, man cannot replicate a host of features typically found in an authentic crop circle. So it isn’t even true that an authentic crop circle can be man made.

 

.

 

Another interesting twist of logic going on behind the scenes is what I call “jumping to the wrong conclusion-premise” It concerns the consideration of a premise by the assumption of the conclusion, “crop circles can only be made by aliens.” and then rejecting aliens as false, and then further assuming the premise is thus also false. The logic is based on the validity of a false conclusion, declaring the premise also false. It is the assumption that since man could not have made the crop circles, aliens must have, and since aliens are not possible, therefore all the drop circles are hoaxes. They are pre-judged as not real, and not being real they are as being man-made.

 

(Scientifically, Korzybski’s reversal of the reversal of observation/abstraction applies here. He states that the unsane scientist abstracts first, and then observes according to his abstraction. He calls for a sane reversal of this reversal, to observe first, and then abstract accordingly.) The story is very different if we observe and then abstract.

 

Their assumptions do not recognize our true capabilities. The assumption is that man is limited to what we all think man is limited to. But it will become clear that there is a lot more to what is going on than what we think is going on.

 

Chapter Two Now the How

 

To explain the inexplicable is not beyond our capabilities. What we need is a newer kind of physics that would account for what we observe in the crop-circle. A physics that does not work the way our ordinary physics works. And to do this we have to expand our knowledge, not in the way we are accustomed to, because what we are accustomed to is what makes them inexplicable, we need to find a new direction to move in.And indeed, there is a new kind of physics that could explain, at least in principle, how crop circles can be made.

 


. What is inexplicable to us now, is not necessarily inexplicable from a more knowledgeable point of view.

 

Quantum Physics started out just this way at the turn of the last Century, Max Planck found black-body-radiation inexplicable because conventional knowledge predicted that the radiation from a black body would increase as the frequency increased. But it didn’t work out that way, instead the radiation leveled off. Eventually Planck found a new notation, the quantum, which was then used by Einstein as quanta, and that was how quantum physics was born. In a sense, quantum physics is a newer kind of physics.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The wave and particle behavior of photons are one example, light acts like both. simultaneously spread out and pinpointed, and thus physicists were confronted by the inexplicable. And yet we have come to know the situation as clear and even obvious from a complementary point of view. What you look at is what you see.

 

We need to find a newer kind of knowledge along those lines

 

Empty space has always been considered a void in conventional knowledge. There is nothing in the vacuum of deep space. The failure to detect the Ether in the Michelson and Morey experiment, and Einstein’s not needing it in his theory, empty space was assumed to be empty. “Being and Nothingness” was how the philosophers put it. But that does not hold in the face of observation.

 

Did you ever wonder how an atomic particle can spin forever? Atoms, as we know, are not made of inert matter, rather they are made of fields, fields which are doing something. (Schreoedinger says they are not a substance, but rather pure shape.) The atoms are doing something. To do something requires energy, and to keep on doing something means the energy has to keep on too. Where is the energy coming from that drives all matter?

 

 

 

 

 

In 1987 Hal Puthoff published a paper which shows that the enregy is coming from the ZPE or what I call the” Inside-of-Space." ZPE is an acronym for Zero Point Energy or the energy measured at absolute Zero, where there should be no energy.

 

I met Hal on the Internet, when he replied to a letter I sent out. In my letter I surmised that the energy required to sustain the atom came from the Inside of Space.

 

In a message dated 5/31/99 4:39:07 PM, Thommandel writes to the quantum-mind list.

<< ...Which reminds me of a question: Does an electron radiate energy while in its "orbit?" I understand that it does at least enough to create magnetism. I also understand that the electron does not decay and fall into the nucleus because it is locked in its orbit, it can't fall. But that doesn't explain where all this energy is coming from to keep it in orbit whether or not it can fall in the first place. I think that all subatomic particles are fed energy continuously from the INSIDE of space.
tom >>

 

[Hal Puthoff ]

This is explained in my paper: H. E. Puthoff, "The Ground state of hydrogen as a zero-point-fluctuation-determined state," Phys. Rev. D vol 35, p. 3266, 1987. It is as you say: absorption of energy from the vacuum fluctuations just balances radiation due to acceleration in the orbit. The balance exists (and is stable) only for the Bohr-orbit ground state.

 

[tom] << So what you are saying is that all radiated energy from atomic particles is balanced by an energy input from the vacuum!? How come this wasn't touted as a great discovery of quantum physics? tom >>

 

[Hal Puthoff]

Among a certain group of physicists (those interested in the physics of vacuum fluctuations) it is touted. I have provided over 500 reprints. A nice "tout" was presented in the 9 Jul 1987 issue of New Scientist, p. 26, in an article titled "Why atoms don't collapse."

 

Turns out Hal is working with NASA on space transport. As is Sarfatti. Moray B King lectures on engineering the ZPE. He wrote Tapping the Zero Point Energy and Quest for Zero Point Energy. King is writing about inventions that tap into the ZPE. He talks a lot about a boll of light. Persistent Ball Lightning especially, and about plasma balls around conductors.

 

He said that a slowing of time indicates a ZPE coherence.

 

One of the Crop researchers wrote about the slowing of time, about turning around but the farmer does twenty minutes of work.

 

 

Present other evidence here-------

 

So there you are. Crop circles are something that come from the INSIDE of Space.

They are a manifestation of the forces of the ZPE, akin to plasmoids, which just goes to show you what the ZPE can do…

 

So in this sense they are not inexplicable, jist mysterious. For now the big question still remains, who or what is doing them?

 

Consider the situation.

 

The ZPE has been well investigated. The equations say it is an infinite energy, practical measuresments say it is …..It has been determined to be non-local, a single entity. It can be imprinted by DNA magnetic fields. The ZPE or ZPF or Quantum Vacuum is not speculation, or even a theory. Experiments told us about this stuff, not the theories. It brings us new concepts such as entanglement – once together always together. Sarfatti is working with NASA on surfing the solitons of consciousness, and Puthoff is as well. The engineers have been hard at work creating free energy machines. They can measure more energy out than in. They have this thing called a plasmoid. A kind of “ball lightning” that can persist in the air. One example was a submarine electrical contacts which when oipened a luminous ball was pop out and float down the gangway.

 

Moray B King writes in his book Quest for Zero Point Energy about a change I the flow of time near a ZPE event.

 

Hmmm, floating balls of light, I heard that before somewhere else.

Who or What?

 

We still have not left our domain. We already have the means to do what is being done. The question now becomes who is doing this? Are we, or are they doing this? It could be that they have found a way to surf the quantum foam, and they are merely being here as a consciousness and not in a spaceship. However NASA is working on inside-spae propelsions machines, and free energy machines have been produced

 

But it also could be that we are doing it. There is no shortage of claims of a collective unconscious, can such a thing create a crop circles? Some crop circles have been wished.

But how? We need a technology which translates our thought into a physical thing = the BoL’s.

Enter Synchronicity.

 

Synchronicity indicates that we are creating the Crop Circles. Synchronicity is a ZPE affair, inducing one event and another event to come together. And here is where we can find a higher intelligence, and the prankster too. I surmise that this higher intelligence thinks in terms of basic principles hence the astounding geometry.

 

The higher intelligence

 

Now the technology… All we need is a computer an electronic spirialograph, Bluetooth

 

And somebody to run the computer….

 

Very rough draft follows

This just in - Seems that Maxwell's missing equations, equations that speak of a fourth dimension, were edited out of the original Maxwell equations by Oliver Heavyside as an attempt to simplify AND eliminate the mystical.

http://www.enterprisemission.com/hyper1a.html

In a tragedy for science (if not for society in general) whose outlines we are only now beginning to appreciate, after Maxwell's death, two other 19th Century "mathematical physicists" -- Oliver Heaviside and William Gibbs -- "streamlined" Maxwell's original equations down to four simple (if woefully incomplete!) expressions. Because Heaviside openly felt the quaternions were "an abomination" -- never fully understanding the linkage between the critical scalar and vector components in Maxwell's use of them to describe the potentials of empty space ("apples and oranges," he termed them) -- he eliminated over 200 quaternions from Maxwell's original theory in his attempted "simplification."

http://www.cheniere.org/references/maxwell.htm

“Maxwell’s” vector equations taught in university are actually Heaviside’s truncated equations, and are only a simplified version of what Maxwell originally wrote.
The Maxwell-Heaviside theory of electrodynamics is now well over a century old, and is actually a serious truncation of Maxwell's 1865 theory of 20 equations in 20 unknowns (those are specifically listed in the original published paper in 1865). Because it was “tainted” with a higher group symmetry algebra (quaternions), even Maxwell himself came under intense pressure to simplify it, after the publication of the first edition of his famous Treatise in 1873. Consequently, Maxwell was rewriting and greatly “watering down” his own Treatise, having finished rewriting and greatly reducing some 80% of it at the time of his death in 1879. The second edition and third edition, therefore, are NOT the original Maxwellian theory, but a very serious truncation. achieve simplicity by cropping out what seemed too mystical at the time.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaternion#Example

History
Quaternions were introduced by William Rowan Hamilton of Ireland in 1843. Hamilton was looking for ways of extending complex numbers (which can be viewed as points on a plane) to higher spatial dimensions. He could not do so for 3-dimensions, but 4-dimensions produce quaternions. According to the story Hamilton told, on October 16 Hamilton was out walking along the Royal Canal in Dublin with his wife when the solution in the form of the equation

i2 = j2 = k2 = ijk = -1

suddenly occurred to him; Hamilton then promptly carved this equation into the side of the nearby Brougham Bridge (now called Broom Bridge). This involved abandoning the commutative law, a radical step for the time. Vector algebra and matrices were still in the future.

Not only this, but Hamilton had in a sense invented the cross and dot products of vector algebra. Hamilton also described a quaternion as an ordered quadruple (4-tuple) of real numbers, and described the first coordinate as the 'scalar' part, and the remaining three as the 'vector' part. If two quaternions with zero scalar parts are multiplied, the scalar part of the product is the negative of the dot product of the vector parts, while the vector part of the product is the cross product. But the significance of these was still to be discovered. Hamilton proceeded to popularize quaternions with several books, the last of which, Elements of Quaternions, had 800 pages and was published shortly after his death.

[edit]
Use controversy
Even by this time there was controversy about the use of quaternions. Some of Hamilton's supporters vociferously opposed the growing fields of vector algebra and vector calculus (developed by Oliver Heaviside and Willard Gibbs among others), maintaining that quaternions provided a superior notation. While this is debatable in three dimensions, quaternions cannot be used in other dimensions (though extensions like octonions and Clifford algebras may be more applicable). Vector notation had nearly universally replaced quaternions in science and engineering by the mid-20th century.

James Clerk Maxwell described in the "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" the interrelated nature of electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetic fields in a set of twenty differential equations in quaternions. The theory was the first paper in which Maxwell's equations appeared. Maxwell's 1865 formulation was in terms of 20 equations in 20 variables, and, in 1873, he attempted a quaternion formulation. Quaternions have a vector and a scalar part and have a higher topology than vector and tensor analysis. The theory unifies two kinds of force — the electric and the magnetic.

Oliver Heaviside reduced the complexity of Maxwell's quaternion equations, creating the four vector-based differential equations we now know collectively as Maxwell's equations. Some people claim that Maxwell's original quaternion equations describe certain physical effects that cannot be explained by the simplified vector equations.



http://www.hypercomplex.com/research/emgrav/hypcx-p20001015.html

PHYSICAL SPACE AS A QUATERNION STRUCTURE - I:
MAXWELL-EQUATIONS: A Brief Note.
by Peter Michael Jack

 

 

 

ABSTRACT: We show how to write Maxwell's Equations in Hamilton's Quaternions. The fact that the quaternion product is non-commuting leads to distinct left and right derivatives which must both be included in the theory. Then, a new field component is discovered, which reduces part of the degree of freedom found in the guage, but which can then be used to explain thermoelectricity, suggesting that the theory of heat has just as fundamental a connection to electromagnetism as the magnetic field has to the electric field, for the new theory now links thermal, electric, and magnetic phenomena alltogether in one set of elementary equations. This result is based on an initial hypothesis, named "The Quaternion Axiom," that postulates physical space is a quaternion structure.

 





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Research material

From http://www.lovely.clara.net/crop_circles_history04a.html

...And here I believe is one of the points being made by the Circlemakers this season (and possibly last season as well) : the purpose of the crop circles phenomenon is being misinterpreted. Today, with the advent of specialist web sites, we have come to expect a certain sensationalism of the circles, and the more sensational the design (and its interpretations) the more attention it receives. Unfortunately, much of this sensationalism is now being created by human beings and erroneously misinterpreted by human minds, and in so doing, the information and purpose projected by the real Circlemakers is being confused, even lost. Hence the 'back to basics' approach through the use of simple designs and connections to fundamental principles of nature.

Case in point: Two years ago I remarked on the farcical 'alien-with-disk'. And it was farcical. Anyone who researched this properly on-site would have easily seen how it had been mechanically made; the local residents revealed they'd seen much light activity late into the night (including a helicopter with a search light at 1 am, contrary to aviation procedure), the design was made over thee course of two days, and from my conversation with the farmer he appears to have been in on the joke; there were even holes in all the right places on the ground to prove its human origins (some of them having even been backfilled). Meanwhile, a beautiful 'shell' design barely twenty miles away had been yielding all manner of encoded numbers and information, yet to my knowledge I am the only one who bothered to find out, because I was not distracted by the sensationalism of an alien holding a disk who, incidentally, resembles the character in the first Star Trek series.

NIMA ARKANI-HAMED: THEORETICAL PHYSICIST
Arkani-Hamed, inquisitive and heavily caffeinated, backs his conceptual breakthrough on the nature of gravity with a mathematical explanation. (Globe Staff Photo / Dina Rudick)

 

 

http://www.boston.com/news/politics/conventions/articles/2004/07/26/into_the_fifth_dimension/

THE NEW BOSTON | THE INNOVATORS

Into the fifth dimension
By Raja Mishra, Globe Staff | July 26, 2004

Nima Arkani-Hamed hasn't seen the fifth dimension. But he's pretty sure it's there, somewhere.

In his spare Harvard office, with its elegant wood desk and floor-to-ceiling blackboard, the long-haired tenured theoretical physicist sucks down espressos at a rapid clip as he ponders the nature of, well, everything.

"The universe," he says, "is much more interesting than we realize."

Questions about the universe come naturally to this son of Iranian-born physicists. As a boy, he puzzled: How long does it take a lake to freeze? Where do rainbows appear? How do stones skip across a lake? But even more enthralling to Arkani-Hamed was that the simple physics equations he learned in school, like force = mass x acceleration, provided the answers.

"You could explain the world around you," he says.

Arkani-Hamed, 32, studied math and physics at the University of Toronto, then received a doctorate in physics at the University of California at Berkeley. By this time, he had moved on from rainbows to the laws of nature.

Four basic forces govern everything. There are the weak and strong forces, which bind together and regulate the movement of subatomic particles, like the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of every atom. There's the electromagnetic force, which regulates everything containing electric charges, making possible all the high-tech gadgetry that drives the world.

And then there's the problem child, good old-fashioned, apple-plunking-down gravity. Physicists believe that, on a fundamental level, the first three forces are essentially the same. But gravity is inexplicably weak. Consider: Even the gravity emanating from the massive moon can barely hold humans to the ground.

However physicists tweak the equations, they can't seem to fit gravity in with the other forces. It's just too weak. This is a problem. The basic quest in physics for the last 50 years has been to unify everything, reduce the universe to its simple essence. But gravity simply hasn't complied.

Arkani-Hamed began pondering this quandary as a Stanford University researcher and continued at Harvard. He stumbled onto the idea of extra dimensions. Imagine a piece of paper floating in space. The space is the fifth dimension. Our world, everything we can perceive, is confined to that paper. But what if there is interaction between the paper and the surrounding space?

Perhaps gravity bleeds into this fifth dimension, Arkani-Hamed theorized, or even more dimensions. But, given our four-dimensional reality, we're able to experience only the gravity left over. In other words, gravity is much stronger than we realize. Perhaps, Arkani-Hamed speculated, at super high energy levels, of an intensity never seen by humans, such as the split second after the Big Bang, gravity is like the other forces, before leaking into the fifth dimension.

Describing this conceptual breakthrough, which he backed mathematically, thus rocking modern physics, Arkani-Hamed says: "At the time, I was just in the mood for thinking about something different." As speculative as his ideas might sound, experimental verification is on the way. In three years, a massive particle accelerator in Switzerland comes on line, giving scientists a means to create super-high energy levels that will enable them to measure nature at the most fundamental scale ever. This should provide evidence confirming -- or refuting -- Arkani-Hamed's theory.

"Until then, the next two years are just a fun period of irresponsibility," he says, laughing.
© Copyright 2004 Globe Newspaper Company.